Even if a person has committed a sin punishable by excision, the disconnection does not occur immediately.
If it did, the person would die at that instant.
In actuality, there is a delay during which he continues to live.
Because the "impression” of the divine soul still remains, one can continue living for as many as fifty or sixty years.
Even though a number of sins incur the same penalty of excision, in actuality there are differences among them.
If a person has committed a transgression and damaged his soul, if he has polluted and contaminated it, and even if he has severed it from its Source of life, he can still reattach himself to God.
Even though his descent has been unfathomably deep, his soul can return and recreate the connection that has been lost.
As long as a person is alive, he can renew his connection with the living God.
–Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz
In Learning from the Tanya by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz